U

UCC Universal Copyright Convention
Ullyses effect The role played by a trade agreement such as the GATT/WTO or a PTA in constraining participating governments from acceding to demands of domestic interests, just as Ullyses had his crew lash his hands to the mast of his ship to help him resist temptation. Mentioned by Anderson (2001).
Uncertainty Failure to know anything that may be relevant for an economic decision, such as future variables, details of a technology, or sales. In models, uncertainty usually appears as a random variable and corresponding probability density function. But in practice, most international models, especially of trade, assume certainty.
UNCITRAL United Nation Centres for International Trade Law คือคณะกรรมการ สหประชาชาติว่าด้วยกฎเกณฑ์การค้าระหว่างประเทศ ทำหน้าที่ร่างรูปแบบ กฎหมายระหว่างประเทศ
Uncovered interest arbitrage The act of borrowing one currency and lending another without using the forward market to protect against change in the exchange rate. Because of the risk of exchange-rate change, this can result in a loss and is therefore not truly a form of arbitrage. Sometimes called the carry trade.
Uncovered interest parity Equality of expected returns on otherwise comparable financial assets denominated in two currencies, without any cover against exchange risk. Uncovered interest parity requires approximately that i = i* + a where i is the domestic interest rate, i* the foreign interest rate, and a the expected appreciation of foreign currency at an annualized percentage rate.
UNCTAD The UN Conference on Trade Development คือ ที่ประชุมว่าด้วยการค้า และการพัฒนาแห่งสหประชาชาติ
Under-invoicing The provision of an invoice that states price as lesst han is actually being paid. This might be done on an import in order to reduce the amount that will be collected by an ad valorem tariff. Or it might be done on an export to reduce apparent profit and thus taxes.
Under-valued currency This situation of a currency whose value on the exchange market is lower than is believed to be sustainable. This may be due to a pegged or managed rate taht is below the market-clearing rate, or, under a floating rate, it may be due to speculative capital outflows. Contrasts with over-valued currency.
Underdeveloped country ประเทศด้อยพัฒนา
UNDP United Nations Development Program. The "development network" of the United Nations, operating in 166 countries (as of June 2007) "advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life."
Unemployment rate อัตราการว่างงาน เป็นอัตราการว่างงานของประเทศต่อแรงงานทั้งหมดในประเทศ
Unequal exchange Trade in which the labor used to produce a country's exports is more than the labor used to produce its imports, as in the exchange between low-wage developing countries and high-wage developed countries.
Unfair trade (1) Under the GATT, this refers only to exports that are subsidized or dumped. 
(2) Under the U.S. law, this also includes various actions that interfere with U.S. exports. 
(3) Also used to refer to almost any trade that the speaker objects to, sometimes including that based on low wages or weal regulations.
Unilateral Transfer 1) Payment made by the government or private sector of one country to another as a gift or aid, not as payment for any good or service nor as an obligation. 
(2) Transfers 
(3) Transfer payment
Unit Tariff (1) A tariff specified as an amount of currency per unit of the good. 
(2) Specific tariff.
United Nations (UN) An organization of countries established in 1945 with 51 members, expanded to 192 countries as of June 2007. Its purpose is "to preserve peace through international cooperation and collective security."
Unnatural trading bloc A trading bloc among countries that are not natural trading partners.
USAID United States Agency for International Development
UNSD United Nations Statistics Division
Unskilled labor Labor with a low level of skill or human capital. Identified empirically as labor earning a low wage, with a low level of education, or in an occupational category associated with these; sometimes crudely proxied as production workers.
UPF Utility possibility frontier
UPOV International Union for the Protection of New Verities of Plants คือ อนุสัญญาว่าด้วยการคุ้มครองพันธุ์พืชใหม่
Upstream subsidization Export of a good one of whose inputs has been subsidized.
USITC United States International Trade Commission
USTR United States Trade Representative
Utility function A function that specifies the utility (well being) of a consumer for all combinations goods consumed (and sometimes other considerations). Represents both their welfare and their preferences.
Utility possibility frontier In a diagram with levels of individual utility on the axes, a curve showing the maximum attainable levels of utility in a given situation, such as free trade or autarky. Used by Samuelson (1962) to demonstrate the gains from trade.

 

ที่มา Deardorffs' Glossary of International Economics

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