T

takeover The acquisition by one firm of another.
Tapioca มันสำปะหลัง
Tapioca Chip มันเส้น มันสำปะหลังเส้น
Tapioca Fiber กากแป้งมันสำปะหลัง
Tapioca Flour แป้งฟลาวร์
Tapioca Mash มันสำปะหลังบด
Tapioca Pellets มันอัดเม็ด มันอัดเม็ดแข็ง
Tapioca Products ผลิตภัณฑ์มันสำปะหลัง
Tapioca Silage มันหมัก
Tapioca Starch แป้งสตาร์ช แป้งมันสำปะหลัง
Tariff A tax on trade, usually an import tariff but sometimes used to denote an export tax. Tariffs may be ad valorem or specific.
Tariff binding A commitment, under the GATT, by a country not to raise the tariff on an item above a specified level, called the bound rate or bound tariff.
Tariff equivalent Measure of the protective effect of an NTB--the tariff that would have the exact same effecct on imports as the NTB.
Tariff escalation Occurs if the tariff increases as a good becomes more processed. Escalation discourages imports of more processed varieties of the good (discouraging foreign processing activity) and offers domestic processors positive levels of effective protection. For example, low duties on tomatoes, higher duties on tomato paste, and yet higher duties on tomato ketchup.
Tariff peaks Tariffs that are particularly high, often defined as rates that exceed 15 percent or the average nominal tariff by a factor of more than three.
Tariff preference A lower (or Zero) tariff on a product from one country than is applied to imports from most countries. This violation of the MFN principle is permitted in special cases, including some preferential trade arrangements and the GSP.
Tariff protection การตั้งกำแพงภาษี คือ การกีดกันโดยการใช้มาตรการทางภาษี เก็บภาษีในอัตราที่สูง เพื่อให้สินค้านำเข้ามีราคาสูงกว่าราคาสินค้าชนิดเดียวกันที่ผลิตในประเทศ
Tariff rate quota (TRQ) (1) Measure under which a good is subject to a MFN tariff, but a certain quantity (the "quota") is admitted at a lower, sometimes zero, tariff. TRQs are mainly applied to agricultural trade and can be seasonal. 
(2) A combination of an import tariff and import quota in which imports below a specified quantity enter at a low (or zero) tariff and imports above that quantity enter a higher tariff. Also called a tariff quota.
Tariff schedule The list of all of a country's tariffs, organized by product.
Tariff wall A tariff, presumably a high one, perhaps in lots of industries. The term is used to highlight the difficulty foreign sellers have in getting their products past the tariff, often in the context of the incentive therefore provided for FDI. See foreign investment argument for protection.
Tariffication Procedure of converting NTBs into their tariff equivalents. In the Uruguay Round, all industrial countires' agricultural NTBs were tariffed and bound.
Tax deduction A provision of the tax code that specifies an amount by which a taxpayer's tax base will be reduced in return for some behavior, resulting in a lowering of the amount of tax paid that depends on their tax rate.
Tax rebate The refund of a tax that has been overpaid. Some countries rebate certain taxes that have been paid on goods that are then exported.
TBT Technical Barriers to Trade คือความตกลงว่าด้วยอุปสรรคทางเทคนิคต่อการค้า
Technical barrier to trade (TBT) A technocal regulation or other requirement (for testing, labeling, packaging, marketing, certification, etc.) applied to imports in a way that restricts trade.
Technical Regulation (1) A requirement of characteristics (such as dimensions, quality, performance, or safety) that a product must meet in order to be sold on a country's market.
(2) A mandatory requirement or standard specifying the characteristics that an imported product must meet. Usually aimed to protect public health or safety. See Technical barrier to trade.
Temporary admission Customs regime under shich firms may import intermediates duty free if used in export production, and are requred to document ex post that imports have been used for this purpose. See also Duty drawback.
Tender To offer a product for sale at a specified price, usually in response to a specific request from a potential purchaser. Government procurement, for example, that is not open to international tenderingis a form of nontariff barrier.
Tequila Crisis Refers to the economic and financial crisis that began in late 1994 when the Mexican peso devalued, causing disruption in the Mexican economy than then spread through other countries of Latin America.
Term of trade effect The effect of a tariff on the terms of trade. By reducing the demand for imports, a tariff levied by a large country causes the prices of those imported goods to fall on the world market relative to the country's exports, improving its terms of trade.
Terms of trade (TOT) (1) The relative price, on world markets, of a country's exports compared to its imports. See improve the terms of trade. 
(2) Outside of the economics of international trade, this expression often refers more broadly to the policies, facilities, and other arrangements that characterize then trade between one country or group of countries and another.
Terms of trade arguement Same of the optimal tariff arguement, which works by restricting the quantity of trade in order to improve the terms of trade.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) armenia, azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz republic, Moldova, russian federation, tajikistan, turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
The Middle East Bahrain, Iraq, Islamic republic of Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, lebanon, oman, Qatar, Saudi arabia, Syrian arab republic, United arab emirates, Yemen, and other countries and territories in the Middle east n.e.s.
TMB องค์กรตรวจตราและกำกับดูแลสิ่งทอ ให้คำปรึกษาดูแลและตรวจตราการปฏิบัติตามพันธกรณี ข้อตกลงสิ่งทอ และเครื่องนุ่งหุ่ม (Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: ATC)
Tokyo Round The 7th round of multilateral trade negotiations that took place under GATT auspices, commencing 1973 and completed in 1979. This was the first trade round to deal with NTBs, by negotiating the Tokyo Round Codes.
Tokyo Round Codes The codes of behavior negotiated in the Tokyo Round covering several NTBs, arising from customs valuation, standards, government procurement, etc. Participation was optional, each code covering only those countries that chose to sign.
Total factor productivity (TFP) A measure of the output of an industry or economy relative to its inputs. The term and its abbreviation often refer to the growth of this measure.
TPRB, TPRM องค์กรทบทวนนโยบายการค้า (TPRB) เป็นองค์กรที่ดำเนินการเกี่ยวกับนโยบายด้านการค้าภายใต้กรอบ WTO ตามกลไกทบทวนนโยบายการค้า (TPRM)
Tradable (1) Capable of being traded among countries. 
(2) A good or service that is tradable; with tradables referring to an aggregate of such goods and services.
Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) A program of adjustment assistance for workers and firms in industries thta have suffered from competition with imports. In the U.S., TAA began with the Trade Expansion Act of 19621, and it has been renewed and expanded since then, including as part of the NAFTA.
Trade an d investment The interactions between, and the rules and policies governing, international trade and foreign direct investment. One of the Singapore Issues.
Trade balance Balance of trade
Trade barrier An artificial disincentive to export and/or import, such as a tariff, quota, or other NTBs.
Trade bloc (Trading bloc) Trading bloc. A group of countries that are somehow closely associated in international trade, usually in some sort of PTA.
Trade capacity The supply-side ability (capacity) of a country to benefit from the opportunities offered by the world market and MFN or preferential access to markets.
Trade cost Any cost incurred in order to engage in international trade, including transport cost, insurance, etc.
Trade creation Occurs when liberalization results in imports displacing less efficient local production and/or expanding consumption that was previously thwarted by artificially high prices due to protection.
Trade defection Entry, into a low-tariff member of a free trade area, of imports intended for a purcheser in its higher-tariff partner.
Trade deficit Imports minus exports of goods and services. See deficit.
Trade dispute Any disagreement between nations involving their international trade or trade policies. Today, most such disputes appear as cases before the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, but prior to the WTO, some were handled by the GATT while others were dealt with bilaterally, sometimes precipitating trade wars.
Trade diversion Occurs when a trade reform discriminates between different trading partners and a less efficient (higher cost) source displaces a more efficient (lower cost) one. Can arise whenever some preferred suppliers are freed from barriers but others are not.
Trade facilitation One of the Singapore Issues, this refers in the Doha Declaration to "expenditing the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit." This includes customs procedures and other practices that may add to the cost or time requirements of trade.
Trade flow The quantity or value of a country's bilateral trade with another country.
Trade in services The provision of a service to buyers within or from one country by a firm in or from other country. Because such transactions do not involve a physical product crossing borders, they were not regarded as "trade" and were not covered by GATT.
Trade integration (1)Process of reducing barriers to trade and increasing participation in the internaitonal econoomy through trade. Also used to describe efforts to integrate trade policy and strengthening of trade-related institutions into a country's overall development strategy. 
(2)The process of increasing a country's participation in world markets through trade, accomplished by trade liberalization.
Trade liberalization Reduction of tariffs and removal or relaxation of NTBs.
Trade negotiation A negotiation between pairs of governments, or among groups of governments, exchanging commitments to alter their trade policies, usually involving reductions in tariffs and sometimes nontariff barriers.
Trade pattern What goods and services a country trades, with whome and in what direction. Explaining the trade pattern is one of the major purposes of trade theory, especially which goods a country will export and which it will import. This may be done directly, as the commodity pattern of trade, indirectly as the factor content pattern of trade.
Trade policy Any policy affecting international trade, including especially tariffs and nontariff barriers.
Trade Promotion Authority New name being used for Fast Track since 2000.
Trade regime The rules and practices prevailing in a country's international trade relationships.
Trade remedy Protection provided by any of the following: anti-dumping duties, countervailing duties, or safeguards protecti
Trade restriction Any policy that reduces the amount of exports or imports, such as a tariff, quota, or other nontariff barrier.
Trade round A set of multilateral negotiations, held under the auspices of the GATT and WTO, in which countries exchange commitments to reduce tariffs and agree to extensions of the GATT rules. Most recent were the Kennedy, Tokyo, Uruguay, and Doha Rounds.
Trade sanction Use of a trade policy as a sanction, most commonly an embargo imposed against a country for violating human rights.
Trade surplus Exports minus imports of goods and services, or balance of trade. See surplus.
Trade war Generally, a period in which each of 2 countries alternate in further restricting trade from the other. More specifically, the process of tariffs and retaliation.
Trade-Related Techincal Assistance Services financed and/or provided by donors and development agencies to srengthen traade-related institutions and build trade capacity in developing countries. See also Integrated Framework.
Traded good A good that is exported or imported or--sometimes--a good that could be exported or imported if it weren't for those pesky tariffs.
Trademark Distinctive mark or name to identify a product, service, or company.
Trademark (1) Distinctive mark or name to identify a product, service, or company. 
(2) A symbol and/or name representing a commercial enterprise, whose right to the exclusive use of that symbol is, along with patents and copyrights, one of the fundamental intellectual property rights that are the subject of the WTO TRIPS agreement.
Trading agreement An agreement between two or more countries concerning the rules under which trade among them will be conducted, either in a particular industry or more broadly.
Transaction Value Used for customs valuation purposes-the price of a good actually paid or payable.
Transfer payment (1) Payment made by the government or private sector of one country to another as a gift or aid, not as payment for any good or service nor as an obligation. 
(2) Transfers 
(3) Unilateral transfer
Transparency The clarity with which a regulation, policy, or institution can be understood and anticipated. Depends on openness, predictability, and comprehensibility. Lack of transparancy can itself be a NTB.
TRATA See Trade-related Techincal Assistance.
Treaty สนธิสัญญา
Triad (1) Europe, North America, and Japan 
(2) The EU, the U.S.,and Japan
Trigger Price See Maximum (minimum) prices system.
TRIMs Trade Related Investment Measures คือมาตรการลงทุนที่เกี่ยวข้องกับการค้า
TRIPs Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights คือความตกลงว่าด้วย สิทธิในทรัพย์สินทางปัญญาที่เกี่ยวกับการค้า
TRIPs Agreement The agreement negotiated in the Uruguay Round that incorporated issues of intellectual property protection to which all but the poorest member countries of the WTO must conform.
Two gap model A model of economic development that focuses on two constraints: the need for savings to finance investment, and the need for foreign exchange to finance imports.
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